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Basics of Coolant Management

Industrial Lubricants are always a vast and interesting subject to discuss and share. Broadly Industrial Lubricants can be discussed in two verticals – one is of course Factory, Plant & Machinery [ FPM ] products like Hydraulics, Gear Oils, Compressor Oils, etc. Another is Lubricants used in processing. In the later segment, one of the most sensitive portfolios is water extendable cutting coolants used in metal processing industries. Many technical publications and in-depth experiences are shared for the maintenance of cutting coolants. However, today's effort is to address the basics of maintenance of Soluble cutting coolants either mineral based conventional high oil content products or new generation semi-synthetic products. Before going into maintenance practices let us have a quick look at the composition and chemistry of Cutting coolants. New generation cutting oils are a complex combination of Lubricity components blended with Emulsifiers, Co-emulsifiers, Corrosion Inhib

Relation Between Friction, Wear & Lubricants

(R.S) What is Friction:-   Friction is the resistance to motion and wear is the loss of material as a result of friction, contact fatigue and corrosion. Reducing friction is a key objective of lubrication, but there are many other benefits of this process. Lubricating films can help prevent corrosion by protecting the surface from water and other corrosive substances. Different Types of Friction:- Sliding Friction:-  The term sliding friction refers to the resistance created by two objects sliding against each other. This can also be called kinetic friction. Sliding friction is intended to stop an object from moving.    Rolling Friction:-  In simple words Rolling friction is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface.     Also there some more types of friction is there like Boring Friction, Mix of Sliding & Rolling Friction, Internal Friction of a deform-able body. Majorly in all types of application, we can see these types of friction & the main purpose of

Can Lubricants Increase Friction?

  Lubricants like any types of greases & oils usually used to reduce the effect (heat generated when the surface move) of friction or we can say that its decrease the friction between surfaces in mutual contact rather increasing friction. A good lubricants or proper lubrication process does not only reduce friction but also it has multi functional tasks mentioned below. 1st & for most lubricants used to separate or lubricate two moving surfaces. 2nd A good lubricant or if you have selected proper lubrication process then lubricants can be a good sealant & can be used for sealing process. 3rd one of the major role of lubricants is to reduce the heat generated by two moving surfaces in mutual contact. Lubricants can act as coolant. Last but not the least Lubricating oils & greases can also protect material from different types of foreign particles, which can damage the materials like bearing, gears etc. & protects from oxidization and corrosion. To clarify how lubrica

Basics of Industrial Lubricants.

We have already shared the Basics of Friction, Wear & Lubricants. Thank you very much for the support you all extended to me by liking & sharing the article with your network. Also if you following our articles then you may read our article on Tribology, Tribosystem & Lubrication. In both article we have shared that What is Friction & benefits & disbenefits of friction & also we have shared how you can reduce the bad effects of friction by using lubrication.

So, today we will share about the Lubricants. Now a day’s science has developed many new lubrication technologies that have outperformed conventional technology in a full-scale industrial application. Before discussing the advanced version of lubrication technology we need to know the basic method of lubrication & basic of lubricants.

What is Lubricants: -

If you have gone through the article on Tribology, Tribosystem & Lubrication then you may know what is lubricants. By the way in the very simple word “A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity.”

Typically, lubricants contain 90% base oil (most often petroleum fractions, called mineral oils) and less than 10% additives & some solid lubricants (as per requirement 5 to 10%). Vegetable oils or synthetic liquids such as hydrogenated polyolefin, esters, silicones, fluorocarbons, and many others are sometimes used as base oils.

Lubricating Oils: -

Since the Roman era, many liquids, including water, have been used as lubricants to minimize the friction, heat, and wear between mechanical parts in contact with each other. Today, lubricating oil, or lube oil, is the most commonly used lubricant because of its wide range of possible applications. The two basic categories of lube oil are mineral and synthetic.

Mineral Oil: -

Mineral oils are produced from refined hydrocarbons obtained from crude oil by distillation.

Synthetic Oil:-

Synthetic oils are manufactured polyalphaolefins, which are hydrocarbon-based polyglycols or ester oils.

Although there are many types of lube oils to choose from, mineral oils are the most commonly used because the supply of crude oil has rendered them inexpensive. Another advantage of mineral-based lube oils is that they can be produced in a wide range of viscosities. Now if we are discussing lubricating oil then we need to know about Viscosity & Viscosity Index.

What is Viscosity: -

In normal words, Viscosity is the resistance of any fluid to flow. When any fluid is flowing then the internal molecules experienced friction due to internal molecular interaction. This means different viscosity fluids flow at different speeds when an external force is applied to them. More viscosity = Less Speed & Less Viscosity = More Speed.

As an example, you can take Water & Honey. Water viscosity is less than Honey. So, with the same amount of external force applied both on the water flow speed of water will be much higher than honey.

Types of Viscosity:-

As we know, the viscosity is the measure of the friction of fluids. There are two ways to measure a fluid’s viscosity as follows:

  • Dynamic Viscosity (Absolute Viscosity)
  • Kinematic Viscosity

Don’t be confused between the two viscosity measures and consider them to be one and the same. In reality, they have significant differences between them. For a few applications, kinematic viscosity is more useful than absolute or dynamic viscosity. We will discuss them at a later stage.

Viscosity Unit:-

The unit of kinematic viscosity is Stokes, named after the British physicist, Sir George Gabriel Stokes.
A stoke is defined as one centimeter squared per second.

Viscosity Index: -

The viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary, unitless measure of the change of viscosity with temperature, mostly used to characterize the viscosity-temperature behavior of lubricating oils. The lower the VI, the more the viscosity is affected by changes in temperature.

Lubricating Greases: - Lubricating grease is a mixture of three main components: lubricating fluid (Base Oil), performance-enhancing additives, and thickener. The lubricating fluid can be petroleum-derived lubricating oil, any of various synthetic lubricating fluids, or vegetable-based oil. The lubricating fluid is usually the majority component in the grease formulation. The additives are typically present in relatively low concentrations and are added to the grease to provide an enhancement in one of the multiple performance areas. The thickener is what sets grease apart from liquid lubricants or lubricating oils. This component gives the grease the property of consistency, making the product semi-solid rather than liquid. Many different chemical compounds can be used to thicken grease.

Tasks of a Thickener: -

  • Thickens the oil
  • Controls the release.
  • Seals the friction point.
  • Protects against moisture & dust.

What is NLGI Consistency Number: -

NLGI is a not-for-profit organization that serves the lubricating grease industry. The organization offers one of the most extensive and unique grease education programs in the industry. The NLGI consistency number expresses a measure of the relative hardness of grease used for lubrication, as specified by the standard classification of lubricating grease established by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI).

A numerical scale for classifying the consistency of lubricating greases, based on the ASTM D217 worked penetration at 25°C

NLGI Consistency Number   Worked Penetration Range, 25°C

000                                                    445-475

00                                                      400-430

0                                                        355-385

1                                                        310-340

2                                                        265-295

3                                                        220-250

4                                                        175-205

5                                                        130-160

6                                                        85-115

Some grease suppliers use descriptions such as NLGI Number 1.5, which indicates that the grease is between NLGI Numbers 1 and 2.

I tried to cover some basics information about Lubricating Oils & Lubricating greases. If you have a question in your mind feel free to give us a shout via comment.

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