Lubricant Tribological Testing Standards

0
222

In this post, we have tried to collaborate most important & common lubricant testing standards. We have collaborated on ASTM, IP, ISO, DIN, JIS and AFNOR testing standards. However, before going forward, we should understand what does these testing standards means.

ASTM Standard:

ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

IP Standard:

The IP Code, or Ingress Protection Code, is defined in IEC standard 60529, which classifies and rates the degree of protection provided by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures against intrusion, dust, accidental contact, and water. The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes it.

ISO Standard:

The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization develops and publishes worldwide technical, industrial and commercial standards.

DIN Standard:

A DIN standard is a voluntary standard developed under the direction of the DIN German Institute for Standardization, in which material and immaterial objects are standardized.

JIS Standard:

Japanese Industrial Standards are the standards used for industrial activities in Japan, coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published by the Japanese Standards Association. 

AFNOR Standard:

AFNOR is the French national organization for standardization and its International Organization for Standardization member body.

Tribological Testing Standards

Analysis / ParametersASTMIPISODINJIS AFNOR Description
Tag flash pointD 56  51411K 2580M07-003The automatic Tag closed-cup tester measures the flash point, the lowest temperature at which the vapors of a sample ignite upon the application of an ignition source. The tester can also be used to detect the ability of a sample to yield flammable vapors when maintained at an equilibrium temperature by the flash/no flash method. TAG 4 is suitable for flash point applications of jet fuels, solvents, chemicals, etc.
Relative Density of Crude OilsD 70 3838   Relative density, or specific gravity is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water at its densest (at 4 °C or 39.2 °F); for gases, the reference is air at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F). The term “relative density” is often preferred in scientific usage.
DistillationD 86123340551751K 2254M07-002Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
Melting pointD 8755384151570 T60-114melting point, temperature at which the solid and liquid forms of a pure substance can exist in equilibrium. As heat is applied to a solid, its temperature will increase until the melting point is reached. More heat then will convert the solid into a liquid with no temperature change.
Cleveland Open Cup flash pointD 9236259251376K 2265T60-118The term “flash point” is used to determine the lowest temperature at which a volatile substance can become vaporised into a flammable gas. To measure a flash point, it is necessary to introduce an ignition source to the substance and wait for the “flash” – the point at which it is able to be ignited. Measuring a flash point using an open cup method is, as the name suggests, conducted in a vessel which is exposed to the air outside. The temperature of the substance is gradually raised and an ignition source is passed over the top of it, until it reaches a point at which it “flashes” and ignites.
Pensky-Martens flash pointD 9334271951758K 2265M07-019The flash point is defined as the lowest temperature of a liquid or semi-solid at which vapors from a test portion combine with air to give a flammable mixture and then “flash” when an ignition source is applied. The Pensky-Martens Flash Point Tester consists of a closed-cup test arrangement that contains any vapors produced and essentially simulates the situation in which a potential source of ignition is accidentally introduced into a container. 
Saponification numberD 94136629351559K 2503T60-110Saponification is a process that involves the conversion of fat, oil, or lipid, into soap and alcohol by the action of aqueous alkali (e.g. NaOH). Soaps are salts of fatty acids, which in turn are carboxylic acids with long carbon chains. A typical soap is sodium oleate.
Water distillationD 9574373351582K 2275T60-113DISTILLATION IS A PROCESS that relies on evaporation to purify water. Contaminated water is heated to form steam. Inorganic compounds and large non-volatile organic molecules do not evaporate with the water and are left behind. The steam then cools and condenses to form purified water.
Pour pointD 9715301651597K 2269T60-105The pour point of a liquid is the temperature below which the liquid loses its flow characteristics. It is defined as the minimum temperature in which the oil has the ability to pour down from a beaker.
Drop melting pointD 1271336244  T60-121Melting point is a wax property that is of interest to most wax consumers. It can be an indication of the performance properties of the wax. Drop melting point, Test Method D127, is often used to measure the melting characteristics of petrolatums and other high viscosity petroleum waxes.
Sulfur, bomb methodD 12961 51577 T60-109This test method entails oxidizing samples by combustion in a bomb containing oxygen under pressure. The amount of sulfur is determined by gravimetry. Materials needed for the test include a combustion bomb, sample cup, firing wire, ignition circuit, and a cotton wicking or nylon sewing thread.
Copper corrosionD 130154216051759K 2513M07-015Copper corrosion is the corrosion of materials made of copper or copper alloys. When exposed to the atmosphere, copper oxidizes, causing normally bright copper surfaces to tarnish. After a few years, this tarnish gradually changes to dark brown or black, and finally to green.
Saybolt colorD 156  51411K 2580M07-003The Saybolt color test is often used to determine if a petroleum-based products contains contaminants or has degraded during storage. Specifically that the saybolt color chart is used as an indication of the overall purity of petroleum-based products and can identify if improper storage or handling of the fuel has occurred. 
Conradson carbon residueD 18913661551551K 2270T60-116Conradson carbon residue, commonly known as “Concarbon” or “CCR” is a laboratory test used to provide an indication of the coke-forming tendencies of an oil. Quantitatively, the test measures the amount of carbonaceous residue remaining after the oil’s evaporation and pyrolysis.In general, the test is applicable to petroleum products which are relatively non-volatile, and which decompose on distillation at atmospheric pressure.[4] The phrase “Conradson carbon residue” and its common names can refer to either the test or the numerical value obtained from it.
Cone penetrationD 217502137  T60-132The cone penetration or cone penetrometer test (CPT) is a method used to determine the geotechnical engineering properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy. It was initially developed in the 1950s at the Dutch Laboratory for Soil Mechanics in Delft to investigate soft soils. Based on this history it has also been called the “Dutch cone test”. Today, the CPT is one of the most used and accepted soil methods for soil investigation worldwide.
Specific energy, bomb methodD 24012 51900 M07-030A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Differential scanning calorimeters, isothermal micro calorimeters, titration calorimeters and accelerated rate calorimeters are among the most common types. A simple calorimeter just consists of a thermometer attached to a metal container full of water suspended above a combustion chamber. It is one of the measurement devices used in the study of thermodynamics, chemistry, and biochemistry.
Gasoline diluent in used engine oils by distillationD 32223    This test method covers the determination of the amount of dilution in crankcase oils of engines when gasoline has been used as a fuel ( and gasoline diluent in used gasoline engine oils by distillation)
Reid vapor pressureD 32369300751754K 2258M41-007Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is a common measure of the volatility of gasoline and other petroleum products. The test method measures the vapor pressure of gasoline, volatile crude oil, jet fuels, naphtha, and other volatile petroleum products but is not applicable for liquefied petroleum gases.
Gum in fuelsD 381131624651784K 2261M07-004The gum content can be used to judge the quality of various products. The amount of gum indicates the condition of the sample at the time of the measurement. Large quantities of gum are an indicator for the contamination of fuel caused by higher boiling oils or particles.
Kinematic viscosityD 44571-1310451562K 2283T60-100Kinematic viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s internal resistance to flow under gravitational forces. It is determined by measuring the time in seconds, required for a fixed volume of fluid to flow a known distance by gravity through a capillary within a calibrated viscometer at a closely controlled temperature.
Kinematic viscometer calibrationD 44671-2310551562   
SedimentD 47353373551789 M07-063Sediment in Crude and Fuel Oils by Extraction Method Covers the determination of sediment in crude oils and fuel oils by extraction with toluene. The precision applies to a range of sediment levels from 0.01 to 0.40 % mass, although higher levels may be determined.
AshD 48246245 K 2272M07-045This test method covers the determination of ash in the range 0.001- 0.180 mass %, from distillate and residual fuels, gas turbine fuels, crude oils, lubricating oils, waxes, and other petroleum products, in which any ash-forming materials present are normally considered to be undesirable impurities or contaminants. The test method is limited to petroleum products which are free from added ash-forming additives, including certain phosphorus compounds.
Ramsbottom carbon residueD 524144262  T60-117Ramsbottom carbon residue (RCR) is well known in the petroleum industry as a method to calculate the carbon residue of a fuel. The carbon residue value is considered by some to give an approximate indication of the combustibility and deposit forming tendencies of the fuel.
Oxidation stabilityD 52540753651780 M07-012Oxidation stability is a chemical reaction that occurs with a combination of the lubricating oil and oxygen. The rate of oxidation is accelerated by high temperatures, water, acids and catalysts such as copper. The rate of oxidation increases with time. The service life of a lubricant is also reduced with increases in temperature. Oxidation will lead to an increase in the oil’s viscosity and deposits of varnish and sludge.
Dropping pointD 5661322176  T60-102The dropping point of a lubricating grease is an indication of the heat resistance of the grease and is the temperature at which it passes from a semi-solid to a liquid state under specific test conditions. It is dependent on the type of thickener used and the cohesiveness of the oil and thickener of a grease.[1] The dropping point indicates the upper temperature limit at which a grease retains its structure though is not necessarily the maximum temperature at which a grease can be used.
Aniline pointD 6112297751775K 2256M07-021Aniline point is a measure of the aromaticity of an oil. It is the point at which the oil becomes miscible in aniline. Thus the lower the aniline point, the higher the aromatic content.
Ignition qualityD 613415165 K 2280M07-035The ignition quality is a measure of the relative ease by which the fuel will ignite. It is measured by the cetane number for distillate fuels. The higher the number, the more easily will the fuel ignite inside the engine.
Neutral numberD 6641776619 K 2501 neutralization number – also called neut number, an indication of the acidity or alkalinity of an oil; the number is the weight in milligrams of the amount of acid (hydrochloric acid) or base (potassium hydroxide) required to neutralize one gram of the oil
RustD 665135712051585K 2510T60-151The Rust Preventing Characteristics Test (ASTM D665) is designed to measure the ability of industrial oils to prevent rusting under conditions of water contamination.
Wax oilD 7211582908  T60-120The oil content of a wax may have significant effects on several of its properties, such as strength, hardness, flexibility, scuff resistance, coefficient of friction, coefficient of expansion, melting point, and oil straining. The importance of these effects may be dependent upon the ultimate use of the wax.
Sulfated ashD 874163398751575K 2272T60-143The sulfated ash test utilizes a procedure to measure the amount of residual substance not volatilized from a sample when the sample is ignited in the presence of sulfuric acid. The test is usually used for determining the content of inorganic impurities in an organic substance.
FoamD 892146624751566K 2518T60-129According to the Foam test the tendency of oils to foam can be a serious problem in systems such as high-speed gearing, high-volume pumping, and splash lubrication. The tendency of lubricants to foam can cause serious issues in systems with high-speed operations. Not only can foam cause inadequate lubrication but also other problems such as overflowing reservoirs.
Cone penetration of lubricating greasesD 937179213751580 T60-119The cone penetration method employs a weighted cone that is dropped into a fixed-size volume of grease for a defined time period. The depth that the cone is able to penetrate the grease is used to rate the grease’s consistency with a scale developed by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI).
Congealing pointD 938762207  T60-128congealing point – the temperature at which molten wax ceases to flow, as measured by test method ASTM D 938; of importance where storage or application temperature is a critical factor.
Interfacial tension-Ring methodD 971 6295   Method for measuring the surface tension of a liquid and the interfacial tension between two liquids. The force referred to the wetted length acting on a ring as a result of the tension of the withdrawn liquid lamella when moving the ring from one phase to another is measured in this method.
Water reactionD 1094289625051415 M07-050Water reaction is done to to determine the presence of water-soluble components in aviation gasoline and turbine fuels. When applied to aviation gasoline, this test reveals the presence of water-soluble components such as alcohols. When applied to aviation turbine fuels, this test method is not reliable in revealing the presence of surfactants which disarm filter-separators quickly and allow free water and particulates to pass; but it can reveal the presence of other contaminants. 
Bromine numberD 11591303839   Bromine number is the amount of bromine in grams absorbed by 100 grams (3.5 oz) of a sample. The number indicates the degree of unsaturation. The Bromine Number is useful as a measure of aliphatic unsaturation in gasoline samples.
Refractive indexD 1218 566151423T2  In optics, the refractive index (also known as refraction index or index of refraction) of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light travels through the material. It is defined as n=c / v where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium.
Water washoutD 12642151100951807T2  The primary test procedure for water washout characteristics of a lubricating grease are detailed in the ASTM D1264 standard. The test includes packing a specified amount of grease into a ball bearing, weighing it and then turning the bearing at 600 RPM while applying water at the rate of . 5 mL/s for one hour.
LPG SamplingD 1265 4257   Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are petroleum chemicals in gaseous form that can be stored and/or handled in the liquid phase under moderate conditions of pressure and at ambient temperature. These gases consist predominantly of propane, propene, butanes and butenes, with small proportions of ethane, ethene and/or pentanes and pentenes and their mixtures.
Sulfur by lampD 1266107   M07-031The sulfur lamp (also sulphur lamp) is a highly efficient full-spectrum electrodeless lighting system whose light is generated by sulfur plasma that has been excited by microwave radiation. They are a particular type of plasma lamp, and one of the most modern. 
Corrosive sulfur in electric insulating oilsD 1275 5662   Insulating oils (transformer oils) protect transformer coils from electrical and thermal damage. If corrosive sulfur compounds are present in the oil, they may react with system components and compromise performance.
DensityD 1298160367551757HK 2249HT60-101Density plays a critical role in how a lubricant functions as well as how machines perform. Most systems are designed to pump a fluid of a specific density, so as the density begins to change, the efficiency of the pump begins to change as well.
Hydrocarbon typesD 1319156383751791K 2536M07-024The determination of the total volume percent of saturates, olefins, and aromatics in petroleum fractions is important in characterizing the quality of petroleum fractions as gasoline blending components and as feeds to catalytic reforming processes. 
Smoke pointD 132257301451406K 2537M07-028The oil is heated and when light blue smoke is noticed, the temperature is recorded as the smoke point.
Water separabilityD 14014126614  T60-125This test method covers measurement of the ability of petroleum oils or synthetic fluids to separate from water.
Color, ASTMD 1500196204951578K 2580T60-104Sometime referred to as the “mineral oil color value”, the ASTM Colour Scale is widely used for the grading of petroleum products such as lubricating oils, heating oils and diesel fuel oils. ASTM D1500 is a single number, one dimensional, colour scale ranging from a pale straw through to a deep red in sixteen steps (0.5 – 8.0 units in increments of 0.5 units).
Vanadium in fuel oilsD 1548    M07-027Vanadium is a naturally occurring element in marine fuel oils in soluble form, which means, it will not be separated even when the fuel is treated in the centrifuge. Vanadium, when combined with Sodium, can cause damage to the engine under elevated temperature.
Sulfur by high temperatureD 1552    M07-025This test method provides a means of monitoring the sulfur level of various petroleum products and additives. This knowledge can be used to predict performance, handling, or processing properties. In some cases the presence of sulfur compounds is beneficial to the product and monitoring the depletion of sulfur can provide useful information
Karl Fischer waterD 1744 6296  T60-154Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method in chemical analysis that uses coulometric or volumetric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample.
Odor of petroleum waxD 1833185    This test method covers a procedure for rating the odor intensity of waxes derived from petroleum.
Dropping point lubricating greaseD 2265 6299   The dropping point is useful to assist in identifying the grease as to type and for establishing and maintaining bench marks for quality control. 
Four ball methodD 22662391100851350  In the 4-Ball Wear test, a steel ball is rotated against three lubricated stationary steel balls under a specified load, speed, temperature and time, per ASTM D-2266 (grease) or ASTM D-4172 (oils). The better the lubricant is at preventing wear, the smaller the wear scar will be on the three stationary balls.
Viscosity index calculationsD 22702262909  T60-136The viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary, unit-less measure of a fluid’s change in viscosity relative to temperature change. It is mostly used to characterize the viscosity-temperature behavior of lubricating oils. The lower the VI, the more the viscosity is affected by changes in temperature.
Freezing pointD 238616301351421K 2276M07-0481. the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid when cooled.
Sulfur by Wickbold methodD 2485 4260   This test method covers the determination of total sulfides in liquefied petroleum gases containing more than 1 μg / g. Samples must contain less than 100 μg / g of halogen.
Cloud pointD 2500219301551597K 2269T60-105Cloud point is the temperature at which wax (paraffin) begins to separate when oil chilled to a low temperature, and it serves as an important indicator of practical performance in automotive applications in low temperatures.
Load carrying capacity of lubricating greasesD 2509326    The test method is used widely for specification purposes and is used to differentiate between greases having low, medium, or high levels of extreme pressure characteristics. The results may not correlate with results from service.
Lead, volumetricD 25472482083  M07-014 
Extreme pressure propertiesD 2596 11008   The Four Ball EP test (ASTM D2596) measures the ability of grease to prevent wear during pure sliding contact under extreme pressure caused by heavy loads. Failure Mechanism of Product Tested: Adhesive Wear: also known as scoring, galling, or seizing.
Cold cranking simulatorD 2602350 51377  The cold-cranking simulator (CCS) is a device used to determine the low temperature performance of lubricants, when starting a cold engine (i.e. cold-cranking). In this condition, the only energy available to turn the engine comes from the starter motor and the battery, and it has been widely assumed that the system acts as a constant power viscometer. 
Sulfur by X-ray fluorescenceD 2622  51400T6K 2541 Sulfur can almost always be found in feedstocks and petroleum products.1 As it is thought to be an undesirable contaminant that results in the formation of harmful pollutants like sulfur oxides, it is typically removed during crude oil processing.
Bromine IndexD 2710299    The bromine index (BI) refers to the number of mg bromine (Br2) bound by 100 g sample. Normally, this method is relevant to olefin-free hydrocarbons with a bromine index lower than 1000. Products with a bromine index greater than 1000 are usually determined through potentiometric titration as the bromine number.
Dryness of propane–Valve freeze methodD 2713 13758   This test is a functional test in which the water concentration in the product is related to product behavior characteristics in a pressure-reducing system of special design to arrive at a measure of product acceptability in common use applications.
TimkenD 2782240 51434  This test method is used widely for the determination of extreme pressure properties for specification purposes.
Boiling range by GCD 2887 3924   This application note demonstrates a solution for D2887 procedure A for analysing Petroleum products covering a boiling point range of 36°C to 545°C.
Distillation characteristics with 15-plate columnD 2892 8708   This test method is one of a number of tests conducted on a crude oil to determine its value. It provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of various boiling ranges and is therefore valuable in technical discussions of a commercial nature.
Base numberD 28962763771 K 2501 New and used petroleum products can contain basic constituents that are present as additives. The relative amounts of these materials can be determined by titration with acids. The base number is a measure of the amount of basic substance in the oil, always under the conditions of the test. It is sometimes used as a measure of lubricant degradation in service; however, any condemning limits must be empirically established.
Brookfield viscosityD 29832679262  T42-011The Brookfield Dial Reading Viscometer measures fluid viscosity at given shear rates.
JFTOTD 32413236249 K 2276BM07-051Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) is a test method for measuring the high temperature stability of gas turbine fuels.
Acid numbers–color indicator titrationD 3339 7537   This test method measures the acid number of oils obtained from laboratory oxidation tests using smaller amounts of sample than Test Methods D974 or D664. It has specific application in Test Method D943 in which small aliquots of oil are periodically removed for testing by Test Method D3339. 
Microcarbon residueD 453039810370   Micro carbon residue, commonly known as “MCR” is a laboratory test used to determine the amount of carbonaceous residue formed after evaporation and pyrolysis of petroleum materials under certain conditions. The test is used to provide some indication of a material’s coke-forming tendencies.The test results are equivalent to the test results obtained from the Conradson Carbon Residue test.
Calculation of cetane indexD 4737 4264   Cetane index is used as a substitute for the cetane number of diesel fuel. The cetane index is calculated based on the fuel’s density and distillation range (ASTM D86). There are two methods used, ASTM D976 and D4737.
Vapor pressureD 5191394  M07-079 Vapor pressure testing measures the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. Vapor pressure tests indicate the evaporation rates of liquids. Materials with high vapor pressures at normal temperatures are considered as having volatile vapor pressures.
Shear stability indexD 5275294 51382  A viscosity modifier polymer’s Shear Stability Index (SSI) is defined as its resistance to mechanical degradation (polymer coil breakage) under shearing stress. Example: An oil is formulated with base oil of viscosity 5 centistokes (cSt) and a viscosity modifier is used to increase its viscosity to 15 cSt.
OxygenatesD 5599408    Oxygenated chemical compounds contain oxygen as a part of their chemical structure. The term usually refers to oxygenated chemical compounds added to fuels.
Noack volatilityD 5800421 51581  The Noack volatility test, named after Kurt Noack, determines the evaporation loss of lubricants in high-temperature service. 
Particulate matterD 621741515167   PM stands for particulate matter (also called particle pollution): the term for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. Some particles, such as dust, dirt, soot, or smoke, are large or dark enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Friction and wearD 6425  51834  This test method can be used to determine antiwear properties and coefficient of friction of EP lubricating oils at selected temperatures and loads specified for use in applications in which high-speed vibrational or start-stop motions are present for extended periods of time under initial high Hertzian point contact pressures.
Dry sand/ rubber wheel abrasion testASTM G-65     This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of metallic materials to scratching abrasion by means of the dry sand/rubber wheel test. It is the intent of this test method to produce data that will reproducibly rank materials in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a specified set of conditions.
Wet sand/ rubber wheel abrasion testASTM G105     his test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of metallic materials to scratching abrasion by means of the wet sand/rubber wheel test. It is the intent of this procedure to provide data that will reproducibly rank materials in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a specified set of conditions.
Pin abrasion testASTM G132     This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear resistance of a material when relative motion is caused between an abrasive cloth, paper, or plastic film and a contacting pin of the test material. The principal factors and conditions requiring attention when using this type of apparatus to measure wear are discussed.
Slurry abrasivity testASTM G75     This test method covers a single laboratory procedure that can be used to develop data from which either the relative abrasivity of any slurry (Miller Number) or the response of different materials to the abrasivity of different slurries (SAR Number), can be determined.
Roll stability tests for greasesASTM D1831     Provides an indication of shear stability of lubricating greases by testing the change in worked penetrations after two hours in the roll stability tester. Roll stability apparatus for shear stability tests on lubricating greases.
Solid matter content in lubricating greases   DIN 51813  The total solids content includes both the suspended solids and dissolved salts. The total solids content is also used to determine a sludge dry weight (expressed as a %).
Fretting Test for lubricant greasesASTM D4170     This test method is used to evaluate the property of lubricating greases to protect oscillating bearings from fretting wear. This method, used for specification purposes, differentiates among greases allowing low, medium, and high amounts of fretting wear under the prescribed test conditions. The test has been used to predict the fretting performance of greases in wheel bearings of passenger cars shipped long distances.
Air Jet Erosion TesterASTM G76     The AJ-1000 Air Jet Erosion Tester is a machine that allows users to conduct standard tests in accordance with ASTM G76 and G211-14. This test method covers the determination of material loss by gas-entrained solid particle impingement erosion with jet nozzle type erosion equipment.
Liquid impingement erosion testASTM G-73     A liquid impingement erosion test is a technique for assessing the erosion resistance of certain materials. This is most beneficial to service environments wherein solid areas are subjected to repetitive impacts by jets or liquid drops.
Cavitating liquid jet erosion testASTM G134     This test method may be used to estimate the relative resistances of materials to cavitation erosion, as may be encountered for instance in pumps, hydraulic turbines, valves, hydraulic dynamometers and couplings, bearings, diesel engine cylinder liners, ship propellers, hydrofoils, internal flow passages, and various components of fluid power systems or fuel systems of diesel engines. It can also be used to compare erosion produced by different liquids under the conditions simulated by the test. 
Cavitation Erosion Using VibratoryASTM G32     A vibratory apparatus is the most popular device in testing cavitation erosion resistance [15-24]. Cavitation is generated by oscillating horn. Depending on the distance between the horn and specimen, the specimen is subjected to various cavitation load. In most devices the frequency is close to 20 kHz.
Pin on disk testASTM G-99     This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined.
Pin and Vee Block TesterASTM D2670, D3233      This test method may be used to determine wear obtained with fluid lubricants under the prescribed test conditions. The user of this test method should determine to his or her own satisfaction whether results of this test procedure correlate with field performance or other bench test machines. If the test conditions are changed, wear values may change and relative ratings of fluids may be different.
Multi-specimen testerASTM D2266, D3702, D4172      
Pin on drum wear testerASTM A514      
Block On Ring TestASTM G77     Block on Ring test is a widely used technique that evaluates the sliding wear behaviors of materials in different simulated conditions, allows reliable ranking of material couples for specific tribological applications.
Galling resistance test of materialsASTM G98     This test method is designed to rank material couples in their resistance to the failure mode caused by galling and not merely to classify the surface appearance of sliding surfaces.
Reciprocating Ball-on-Flat Sliding WearASTM G133     This test method is designed to simulate the geometry and motions that are experienced in many types of rubbing components whose normal operation results in periodic reversals in the direction of relative sliding.
Wear test using cross cylinder apparatusASTM G83-96     This test method covers a laboratory test for ranking metallic couples in their resistance to sliding wear using the crossed-cylinder apparatus. During the test, wear occurs at a contact between a rotating cylinder and a stationary cylinder which have their long axes oriented normal to each other.
Measuring Friction and Wear Properties of Lubricating Grease using SRV TestASTM D5707     This test method covers a procedure for determining a lubricating grease’s coefficient of friction and its ability to protect against wear when subjected to high-frequency, linear-oscillation motion using an SRV test machine at a test load of 200 N, frequency of 50 Hz, stroke amplitude of 1.00 mm, duration of 2 h, and temperature within the range of the test machine, specifically, ambient to 280 °C. Other test loads (10 N to 1200 N for SRVI-model, 10 N to 1400 N for SRVII-model, and 10 N to 2000 N for SRVIII-model), frequencies (5 Hz to 500 Hz) and stroke amplitudes (0.1 mm up to 4.0 mm) can be used, if specified. The precision of this test method is based on the stated parameters and test temperatures of 50 °C and 80 °C. Average wear scar dimensions on ball and coefficient of friction are determined and reported.
Determining Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Greases using SRV testASTM D5706     This laboratory test method can be used to quickly determine extreme pressure properties of lubricating greases at selected temperatures specified for use in applications where high-speed vibrational or start-stop motions are present with high Hertzian point contact. This test method has found wide application in qualifying lubricating greases used in constant velocity joints of front-wheel-drive automobiles. Users of this test method should determine whether results correlate with field performance or other applications.
Friction Tests of Piston Ring and Cylinder Liner Materials Under Lubricated ConditionsASTM G181-11     This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition.
Test for studying wear and corrosion synergyASTM G119     This guide covers and provides a means for computing the increased wear loss rate attributed to synergism or interaction that may occur in a system when both wear and corrosion processes coexist. The guide applies to systems in liquid solutions or slurries and does not include processes in a gas/solid system.
READ ALSO  Can Lubricants Increase Friction?

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here