Basic of Industrial Lubricants

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In very simple word, “A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity.”

Typically, lubricants contain 90% base oil (most often petroleum fractions, called mineral oils) and less than 10% additives & some solid lubricants (as per requirement 5 to 10%). 

Mineral Oil

Mineral oils are produced from refined hydrocarbons obtained from crude oil by distillation. Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils.

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Synthetic oils are manufactured polyalphaolefins, which are hydrocarbon-based polyglycols or ester oils. Although there are many types of lube oils to choose from, mineral oils are the most commonly used because the supply of crude oil has rendered them inexpensive. 

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Synthetic Oil

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What is Viscosity

Viscosity is the resistance of any fluid to flow. When any fluid is flowing, then the internal molecules experienced friction due to internal molecular interaction. More viscosity = Less Speed & Less Viscosity = More Speed.

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Types of Viscosity

As we know, viscosity is the measure of the friction of fluids. There are two ways to measure a fluid’s viscosity as follows: – Dynamic Viscosity (Absolute Viscosity) – Kinematic Viscosity

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Viscosity Unit

The unit of kinematic viscosity is Stokes, named after the British physicist, Sir George Gabriel Stokes. A stoke is defined as one centimeter squared per second.

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The viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary, unitless measure of the viscosity change with temperature, mostly used to characterize the viscosity-temperature behavior of lubricating oils. The lower the VI, the more the viscosity is affected by changes in temperature.

Viscosity Index

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Lubricating grease is a mixture of three main components: lubricating fluid (Base Oil), performance-enhancing additives, and thickener.

Lubricating Greases